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Mark Granovetter

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发表于 2017-6-20 10:20:37 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
    马克·格兰诺维特(Mark Granovetter),美国斯坦福大学人文与科学学院Joan Butler Ford教授,曾任该校社会学系主任,他是20世纪70年代以来全球最知名的社会学家之一,主要研究领域为社会网络和经济社会学。
    马克‧格兰诺维特(Mark Granovetter)是斯坦福大学社会系琼‧巴特勒‧福特(Joan Butler Ford)教授。曾获得哈佛大学博士学位、斯德哥尔摩大学名誉博士学位,在社会学刊物上发表过多篇文章,论述社会网络、不平等与经济社会学,现为斯坦福大学Bechtel创新计划「硅谷社会网络」项目负责人。
马克‧格兰诺维特(Mark Granovetter)在2000年和玛格丽特‧韩柯克(Marguerite Gong Hancock)、黄浩秋(Hokyu Hwang)、埃米利奥‧卡斯蒂拉(Emilio J.Castilla)和艾琳‧格兰诺维特(Ellen Granovetter)等人一起搞了个调查研究:「硅谷社会网络Social Networks in Silicon Valley」。后来这个研究报告被编入斯坦福大学出版社出版的《硅谷优势:创新与创业精神的栖息地》(The Silicon Valley Edge)。
Mark Granovetter is Joan Butler Ford Professor in the Department of Sociology at Stanford University. He came to Stanford in 1995 after holding positions on the faculties of Northwestern (1992-1995), SUNY Stony Brook (1977-1992), Harvard (1973-1977) and Johns Hopkins (1970-1973). He received his Ph. D. in Sociology from Harvard in 1970, his B.A. from Princeton in Modern History in 1965, and was awarded an honorary doctorate from Stockholm University in 1996.
Mark Granovetter is an American sociologist who has created some of the most influential theories in modern sociology since the 1970s. He is best known for his work in social network theory and in economic sociology, particularly his theory on the spread of information in social networks known as "The Strength of Weak Ties" (1973).


主要贡献:弱连接理论编辑
在(二十世纪)六十年代晚期,还是哈佛大学研究生的马克·格拉诺维特Mark Granovetter通过寻访麻省牛顿镇的居民如何找工作来探索社会网络。他非常惊讶地发现那些紧密的朋友反倒没有那些弱连接的关系更能够发挥作用。事实上,紧密的朋友根本帮不上忙。 Granovetter描述弱连接的论文被当年的《美国社会学评论》拒之门外而无人问津,直到多年之后才得到认可,并被认为是现代社会学最有影响的论文之一。
弱连接理论由美国社会学家马克·格拉诺维特(Mark Granovetter)于1974年提出。格兰诺维特指出:在传统社会,每个人接触最频繁的是自己的亲人、同学、朋友、同事……这是一种十分稳定的然而传播范围有限的社会认知,这是一种“强连接” (Strong Ties)现象;同时,还存在另外一类相对于前一种社会关系更为广泛的,然而却是肤浅的社会认知。例如一个被人无意间提到或者打开收音机偶然听到的一个人……格兰诺维特把后者称为“弱连接”(Weak Ties)。


研究发现:其实与一个人的工作和事业关系最密切的社会关系并不是“强连接”,而常常是“弱连接”。“弱连接”虽然不如“强连接”那样坚固(金字塔),却有着极快的、可能具有低成本和高效能的传播效率。
事实上,在信息的扩散传播方面,弱连接起着同样的作用。一个人的亲朋好友圈子里的人可能相互认识,因此,在这样圈子中,他人提供的交流信息总是冗余。比如,我从这个朋友或亲戚听到的,可能早已经在另一个朋友那里听说了,而他们之间也都相互交谈过此话题。日常生活中不乏这样的事例。
弱链接在我们与外界交流时发挥了关键的作用,为了得到新的信息,我们必须充分发挥弱链接的作用。这些弱链接,或是熟人,都是我们与外界沟通的桥梁,不同地方的人通过弱链接可以得到不同的信息。最亲近的朋友可能生活圈子和你差不多,你们的生活几乎完全重合。而那些久不见面的人,他们可能掌握了很多你并不了解的情况。只有这些“微弱关系”的存在,信息才能在不同的圈子中流传。弱链接的威力正在于此。
强连接关系通常代表者行动者彼此之间具有高度的互动,在某些存在的互动关系型态上较亲密,因此,透过强连接所产生的讯息通常是重复的,容易自成一个封闭的系统。网络内的成员由于具有相似的态度,高度的互动频率通常会强化原本认知的观点而降低了与其它观点的融合,故认为在组织中强连接网络并不是一个可以提供创新机会的管道。


研究领域

Economic Sociology, Social Stratification, Sociological Theory


相关著作

Since 1986 Mark Granovetter has been the editor of a Cambridge University Press series, Structural Analysis in the Social Sciences. This is the only social science series that emphasizes explanation by reference to relations among concrete social entities such as persons or organizations. More than twenty-five volumes have appeared to date, in sociology, anthropology, political science, history and statistical methods.
2001. The Sociology of Economic Life, 2nd edition, edited with Richard Swedberg. Boulder, CO: Westview Press
1995. Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers, 2nd Edition (with a new Preface and a new chapter updating research and theory since the 1974 edition). University of Chicago Press.

主要论文

2007. “The Social Construction of Corruption”. Pp. 152-172 in Victor Nee and Richard Swedberg, editors, On Capitalism, Stanford University Press.
2005. “Electric Charges: The Social Construction of Rate Systems”. With Valery Yakubovich and Patrick McGuire. Theory and Society 34 (5-6): 579-612.
2005. "The Impact of Social Structure on Economic Outcomes". Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(1 ) (Winter): 33-50.
2005. “Business Groups and Social Organization”. Pp. 429-450 in Neil Smelser and Richard Swedberg, editors, Handbook of Economic Sociology, Second Edition. Princeton University Press and Russell Sage Foundation.
2003. "Ignorance, Knowledge and Outcomes in a Small World". Science 301 (8 August, 2003): 773-774. (Perspective on Dodds, Muhammad and Watts' "An Experimental Study of Search in Global Social Networks", Science, same issue. )
2002. "A Theoretical Agenda for Economic Sociology". Pp. 35-59 in Mauro Guillen, Randall Collins, Paula England and Marshall Meyer, editors. The New Economic Sociology: Developments in an Emerging Field. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
2000. "Social Networks in Silicon Valley". With Emilio Castilla, Hokyu Hwang and Ellen Granovetter. Pp. 218-247 in Chong-Moon Lee, William F. Miller, Marguerite Gong Hancock, and Henry S. Rowen, editors, The Silicon Valley Edge. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
1998. "The Making of an Industry: Electricity in the United States". With Patrick McGuire. Pp. 147-173, in Michel Callon, editor, The Laws of The Markets, Oxford: Blackwell.
1995. "Coase Revisited: Business Groups in the Modern Economy". Industrial and Corporate Change 4(1): 93-130.
1990 “The Myth of Social Network Analysis as a Special Method in the Social Sciences”. In Connections 13(2): 13-16.
1988. "Inequality and Labor Processes" (With Charles Tilly). In Neil Smelser, ed., Handbook of Sociology, pp. 175-221. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
1988. "The Sociological and Economic Approaches to Labor Market Analysis: A Social Structural View". Pp. 187-216 in George Farkas and Paula England, editors, Industries, Firms and Jobs: Sociological and Economic Approaches. New York: Plenum Press.
1988 "Threshold Models of Diversity: Chinese Restaurants, Residential Segregation and the Spiral of Silence." (With Roland Soong). In Clifford Clogg, ed., Sociological Methodology , pp. 69-104.
1986 "The Micro-Structure of School Desegregation". Pp. 81-110 in J. Prager, D. Longshore and M. Seeman, School Desegregation Research: New Directions in Situational Analysis. New York: Plenum Press.
1985. "Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness." American Journal of Sociology, 91(November): 481-510.
1984. "Small is Bountiful: Labor Markets and Establishment Size". American Sociological Review 49(June): 323-334.
1979 "The Idea of ‘Advancement’ in Theories of Social Evolution and Development." American Journal of Sociology, 85 (November):489-515.
1978. "Threshold Models of Collective Behavior." American Journal of Sociology, 83 (May): 1420-1443.
1973. "The Strength of Weak Ties." American Journal of Sociology, 78 (May): 1360-1380.

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